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How to set up a DNS server on Ubuntu Server 12.04 LTS


Today I will show you how to set up a DNS server on Ubuntu Server 12.04 LTS.

The first thing to do is to install the software we need, in this case we need the bind9 package. Open up a terminal and type:

sudo apt-get install bind9

Once installed it is time for some configuring. The first file we need to configure is named.conf.local. So in the terminal type:

sudo nano /etc/bind/named.conf.local

I have used nano to open up the file but use whichever text editor you are happy with. Insert the following code into the file:

# This is the zone definition. replace example.com with your domain name
zone “comtech.com” {
type master;
file “/etc/bind/zones/comtech.com.db”;
};

# This is the zone definition for reverse DNS. replace 0.168.192 with your network address in reverse notation – e.g my network address is 192.168.0
zone “1.168.192.in-addr.arpa” {
type master;
file “/etc/bind/zones/rev.0.168.192.in-addr.arpa”;
};

Replace comtech.com with the name of your DNS domain (this is not the same as an active directory domain but rather a name for your DNS zone).

Next up is the options file. In the terminal type:

sudo nano /etc/bind/named.conf.options

Within this file we need to modify the forwarder with the address of your ISP’s DNS servers. So modify the file adding the following:

forwarders {

194.72.0.114;
194.74.65.69;
};

Replace the addresses above with the addresses of your ISP’s DNS servers.

Now we need to add the zones file:

sudo mkdir /etc/bind/zones

And then configure it:

sudo nano /etc/bind/zones/comtech.com.db (replace comtech.com with your DNS domain).

Add the following code to the file:

// replace example.com with your domain name. do not forget the . after the domain name!
// Also, replace ns1 with the name of your DNS server
comtech.com. IN SOA chris-server.comtech.com.
// Do not modify the following lines!
2006081401
28800
3600
604800
38400
)

// Replace the following line as necessary:
// ns1 = DNS Server name
// mta = mail server name
// example.com = domain name
comtech.com. IN NS chris-server.comtech.com.
comtech.com. IN MX 10 mta.example.com.

// Replace the IP address with the right IP addresses.
www IN A 192.168.1.4
mta IN A 192.168.0.3
chris-server IN A 192.168.1.4

In the above code replace the following:

comtech.com with your DNS domain name,

192.168.1.4 with your static DNS server address,

chris-server.comtech.com with your computers hostname.dns-domain,

mta is your mail server (if you have one). If you do modify the IP address to show this.

Next we have to create the reverse DNS zone file:

sudo nano /etc/bind/zones/rev.1.168.192.in-addr.arpa

Add the following code:

//replace example.com with your domain name, ns1 with your DNS server name.
// The number before IN PTR example.com is the machine address of the DNS server
@ IN SOA chris-server.comtech.com admin.comtech.com. (
2006081401;
28800;
604800;
604800;
86400
)

IN NS chris-server.comtech.com.
1 IN PTR comtech.com

All that is left to do is restart bind:

sudo service bind9 restart

Don’t forget to test the new configuration:

dig comtech.com

NOTE:

If you are unable to restart the bind9 service run the command named -g 53 which will give you a list of any configuration errors.

About the Author

P1020114

Hi I’m Chris Wakefield the owner of ComTech IT Support. I provide Windows, Mac and Linux based IT Support to small businesses in Stirling, Alloa and Falkirk.

Follow @Comtech247 on Twitter

 

 

What is encryption?


Today I shall talk about encryption, what it is and the different types available on the market.

Encryption is basically taking a computer algorithm and applying it to a piece of data and making it unreadable to a third party. In essence the only person who can read that data is the person who has the key to decrypt it.  If you had data on your hard drive which was sensitive (e.g financial records etc) then you could encrypt it so no one else could read it.

What are the different types?

There are loads of different types of encryption and which one you use will depend on if you want t0 encrypt transmissions, databases or files / folders.  I am going to concentrate on files / folders because that is what most people will be looking for – making files unreadable to third parties.

This is where I shall introduce you to two of the most popular pieces of encryption software, TrueCrypt and Bit Locker both of which work on Windows.  Truecrypt is open source while Bit Locker is proprietary software from Microsoft.  Both can encrypt and decrypt a hard drive and both are virtually unbreakable (at time of print!!).  TrueCrypt is easy to set up and does not require repartitioning of your hard drive, whereas Bit Locker does.  Bit Locker requires a 1.5 Gb partition to be set up prior to installing the operating system.  If not you will have to repartition your hard drive and restore Windows from a backup.

So what are the advantages and disadvantages of encryption?

Advantages

1. Data is safe as no one else can read it without the decryption key.

2. Once set up it requires little or no user input.

Disadvantages

1. If you lose the encryption key you will not be able to read your data EVER.

2. Uses more system resources (ie CPU)

3. If Windows becomes corrupt and will not boot you have to decrypt your files before you can recover them which takes time (I recently had to decrypt a 160Gb hard drive encrypted using TrueCrypt which took 8 hours!! Only then could I recover the user files and restore the system)

Hopefully this has given you an insight into encryption and the advantages and disadvantages of using it.  Just remember don’t lose the key!!!

About the Author

P1020114

Hi I am Chris Wakefield the owner of ComTech IT Support. I provide Windows and Linux based IT Support, laptop repairs and computer repairs to both business and personal clients throughout Stirling, Falkirk and Clackmannanshire.

For a list of what I can offer you why not visit my website www.comtech247.net where you will find a list of my services, testimonials, blog and much more!!

 

How to transfer DNS Zones in Windows Server 2008 R2


Today we will having a look at Windows Server 2008 R2 and in particular how you go about transfering DNS zones between two or more DNS servers.

On the DNS server hosting the primary DNS zone open up DNS Manager.  Expand the menus until you locate your domain and right click.  Go to properties.  You should get the screenshot below.

On the general tab it is good practice to change Dynamic updates to Secure Only.  Doing this only allows updates from trusted sources.  Once completed click on the Zone Transfers tab.  You should get the screenshot below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Click on Allow Zone Transfers and then it is a good idea to click on “Only to the following servers”.  This allows DNS data to only be replicated to trusted servers.  Enter the ip address of the trusted server and wait until the FQDN appears.  Once the data is entered and verified click Apply.  The DNS data will now be replicated between your servers.

About the Author

P1020114

Hi I am Chris Wakefield the owner of ComTech IT Support. I provide Windows and Linux based IT Support, laptop repairs and computer repairs to both business and personal clients throughout Stirling, Falkirk and Clackmannanshire.

For a list of what I can offer you why not visit my website www.comtech247.net where you will find a list of my services, testimonials, blog and much more!!

 

 

CyberChimps
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