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Windows 8 – The journey from pure hatred to new best friend


I had a call from a home client last week who wanted me to take a look at his new Windows 8 laptop.  When I asked him what the issue was I got the reply “I cant do anything on it.  It is just so ****** different.  Can you please come out and show me how to use it”.

No problem.  I turned up on site and it was obvious from the start that he hated Windows 8. He knew his way around a Windows 7 system and thought he would take to Windows 8 with no problems.  He was wrong.  So I asked him to be a bit more specific about what he was trying to do on the system.

Problem Number 1 – I don’t know how to open up any programs.

“What is this new start screen rubbish everytime I start the laptop”. These were his words regarding the new Start (aka Metro) interface.  I explained that Microsoft was trying to have the same interface across all devices.  So if you had a tablet, laptop or smartphone with Windows 8 you would see the same interface no matter what the device.  “I guess there is some logic in that I suppose but how do I get to my programs”

I showed him how to pin his most used programs to the Start Screen and told him that the Windows Key was now his new best friend.  Press the Windows key and you go back to the Start Screen where all his programs now were.  This he did like – very much.

Problem Number 2 – Where has the Control Panel gone?

I showed him how to search for the Control Panel and that in fact once opened the Control Panel is almost identical to the one in Windows 7.  I then again showed him how to pin it to his Start Screen so he would not have to go looking for it again.  Again this he liked very much.

Problem 3 – Where is Microsoft Office?

This you can’t blame on Windows 8.  The client had been using Office through their work computer for years and this being the first home laptop they had purchased themselves thought it came with Windows 8.  Once I had explained the finer points of Microsoft subscription charges (this they seriously didn’t like) and showed them how much Office 2010 would cost them I showed them Libreoffice which it turns out would satisfy their word processing needs.  This was installed and automatically pinned to the Start Screen.

The main thing my client wanted was to be shown how to use the new interface.  Once I had shown them that underneath all the new shiny stuff it was still the Windows they had used for all these years they were very happy.  They love that you can pin all your programs to the Start Screen and using the Windows Key can find them in an instant.  Rather than go through the Start button and search for them (by the way they don’t miss it) all their programs are there in one place ready to be clicked on.  Boot time is much faster than they were used too and when I left I heard the immortal words “I am actually beginning to like this”.

One more happy client.

About the Author

P1020114

Hi I am Chris Wakefield the owner of ComTech IT Support. I provide Windows and Linux based IT Support, laptop repairs and computer repairs to both business and personal clients in Stirling, Falkirk and Clackmannanshire.

For a list of what I can offer you why not visit my website www.comtech247.net where you will find a list of my services, testimonials, blog and much more!!

 

 

How to set up software RAID on Ubuntu 12.04


Today I will show you how to set up software RAID on Ubuntu 12.04.  It is always better to use hardware RAID over software RAID as this minimizes system resources but if you are installing Ubuntu 12.04 on a system where there is no hardware RAID available (ie older hardware) then this is the method you need.  This tutorial uses Ubuntu 12.04 but should work on all the major distributions.

For the purpose of this tutorial I will be using 2*500 Gb hard drives and setting up a RAID 1 array.

Boot the system from the Live CD.  Once booted up open up the terminal as we need to check what our two disks are called so type:

sudo fdisk -l

Write down the designations of the two disks (e.g /dev/sda) as we are going to need these later.

Now we need to install a couple of packages.  The first we need to install is gparted so type:

sudo apt-get install gparted

The next is mdadm so type:

sudo apt-get install mdadm

Ok now we need to create partition tables and filesystems on our disks and we do this by using gparted.  In the terminal type:

sudo gparted

which will open up gparted as root allowing you to modify the partitions on the disks.  On both disks create a whole disk partition with ext4 as the filesystem.  This tutorial will show you how.

Once that is done you can close down gparted and we can go about setting up the array.

In your terminal type the following:

sudo mdadm –create –verbose /dev/md0 –level=1 –raid-devices=2 /dev/sda /dev/sdb

NOTE: There are two dashes infront of create, verbose, level and raid

In the above command:

level=1 is the raid level (in this case Mirror)

raid-devices=2 is the number of hard disks in the array

/dev/sda and /dev/sdb are the disks to be used (obtained earlier using fdisk)

If successful then you should get mdadm: array /dev/md0 started

Now we just to check the array so in your terminal type:

mdadm –detail –scan (again using two dashes)

This command should return details of the array we have just set up.

Now on to the install.  You need to install Ubuntu 12.04 the usual way from the CD until you get to the disk partitioning section where instead of using the default “Use entire disk” choose Manual.

When you choose Manual you should see /dev/md0 as one of the available disks.  You will need to specify a mount point (/) and a swap file onto it and then choose it to install Ubuntu 12.04 onto.  Follow the wizard for the rest of the install.

Once Ubuntu 12.04 has been installed reboot the system and you should now have a RAID 1 array set up.

About the Author

P1020114

Hi I am Chris Wakefield the owner of ComTech IT Support. I provide Windows and Linux based IT Support, laptop repairs and computer repairs to both business and personal clients throughout Stirling, Falkirk and Clackmannanshire.

For a list of what I can offer you why not visit my website www.comtech247.net where you will find a list of my services, testimonials, blog and much more!!

 

 

How to format a hard drive on Ubuntu 12.04 using Fdisk


Today I will show you how to format a hard disk using Fdisk.  Fdisk comes already installed on most modern Linux distributions by default.

For the purpose of this tutorial I will be using Fdisk on Ubuntu 12.04 to format a 16Gb USB penstick with the ntfs file system.

First we need to see what our 16Gb USB penstick is mounted as so open up a terminal and type:

sudo fdisk -l

and type your password when prompted.  You should get a screenshot similar to the one below.

In this case my 16Gb USB penstick is mounted at /dev/sdc1.

Next type:

sudo fdisk /dev/sdc1

and you should get the command prompt shown below.

Now we need to check the existing partitions on the penstick so type:

p

to get the screenshot below.

Now we know what is on the drive it is time to delete it so type:

d

You will then be asked for the partition number (1-4).  In my case I have 4 partitions on the disk and I need to delete them all.  So I will type 1 and this will erase the 1st partition only.  I would then be left with partitions 2 – 4 and to remove these I would repeat the procedure until all the partitions have been erased.

We now need to set up the new partition so in your terminal type:

n

Because this is the first partition on the drive type:

p

You will now be asked for a partition number.  Choose 1 and then press return.  When asked to specify the First Sector choose the default by pressing Return.  Again accept the default Last Sector by pressing Return.

Now that the partition parameters have been specified we need to write them to the hard drive and we do that by typing:

w

All that is left to do is to make the filesystem on the hard drive and to do that we type:

sudo mkfs -t ntfs /dev/sdc1

Next time I will show you how to accomplish the same task using GParted (for those who like a GUI).

About the Author

P1020114

Hi I’m Chris Wakefield the owner of ComTech IT Support. I provide Windows, Mac and Linux based IT Support to small businesses in Stirling, Alloa and Falkirk.

Follow @Comtech247 on Twitter

 

How to configure Startup Applications in Ubuntu 12.04


Today I will show you how to configure startup applications in Ubuntu 12.04.

On your desktop go to settings (cog in the top right of the screen) and click on Startup Applications.

You will be shown a list of all the programs that are configured to start at boot time. Click on Add.

For the purpose of this tutorial I will configure Libreoffice to start at boot.   In the screen shot above I have configured the following:

Name – Libreoffice

Command – /usr/bin/libreoffice (all programs are stored in /usr/bin so use this command)

Comment – Office Suite

Once configured click Add.

Restart the system and your chosen program with start at boot.

About the Author

P1020114

Hi I am Chris Wakefield the owner of ComTech IT Support. I provide Windows and Linux based IT Support, laptop repairs and computer repairs to both business and personal clients throughout Stirling, Falkirk and Clackmannanshire.

For a list of what I can offer you why not visit my website www.comtech247.net where you will find a list of my services, testimonials, blog and much more!!

How to schedule a backup in Ubuntu 12.04


Today I will show you how to schedule a backup in Ubuntu 12.04 using cron.

The cron daemon uses the crontab file  (think Task Scheduler in Windows) which allows you to set the backup schedule. The beauty of using cron is that it works ON ALL LINUX DISTRIBUTIONS not just Ubuntu. You don’t even need to install cron as it comes installed by default.

Ok time to get your hands dirty.  Open up a terminal and type “su” and when prompted enter your root password.  Next you want to open up the crontab file so type “nano /etc/crontab” in a terminal.  The crontab file should look similar to the table below.

 

M H Dom Mon Dow User Command
1 9 * * * Root Tar -cvf/media/dev/sdb/backup.tar /home

Where:

M = minutes

H = hours

Dom = every day in the month

Mon = every month

Dow = every day of week (e.g 1-5 would be Monday to Friday inclusive)

User = user who can perform this task

Command = what is getting backed up and where is it getting sent to

Lets explain this a bit. In the above example I have backed up a folder called home (/home) to a folder called backup.tar which is on sdb (/dev/sdb/backup.tar) at 1 minute past 9 everyday in the month, every month.  The authorised user is root and the command to be used is Tar -cvf.

When you have configured the crontab file save it and exit.  Your backup schedule is now set.

About the Author

P1020114

Hi I am Chris Wakefield the owner of ComTech IT Support. I provide Windows and Linux based IT Support, laptop repairs and computer repairs to both business and personal clients throughout Stirling, Falkirk and Clackmannanshire.

For a list of what I can offer you why not visit my website www.comtech247.net where you will find a list of my services, testimonials, blog and much more!!

How to create a DFS Namespace on Windows Server 2008 R2


Today I will show you how to create a DFS Namespace on Windows Server 2008 R2.  For the purpose of this tutorial I will be using two domain controllers running Windows Server 2008 R2 – 2008Test1 and 2008Test2.

On 2008Test1

The first thing we need to do is install File Services so go to Server Manager and add the File Services Role.

On the next screen you are given a set of additional options to install.  Choose Distributed File System, DFS Namespaces and DFS Replication.

On the next page choose a name for your Namespace and then click next.

You will now be asked what type of namespace you want to configure.  For the purpose of this tutorial I will choose a Domain-based namespace.

You now need to specify a user account that is a member of the domain admins group as shown below.

You are now given the option of adding any folders you require into your namespace before it is created.

On the summary page review your options and then click install.  Repeat the steps on 2008Test2 but do not create a namespace when asked to do so.

Adding a server to the DFS Namespace

A DFS Namespace would be pretty pointless if it was only hosted on one server so we are going to add 2008Test2 as an additional server.

On 2008Test1 go to Server Manager and right click on Roles – File services – DFS Management – Namespaces – <your domain> – <your Namespace> and then choose Add Namespace Server.

Click on the browse button.  Enter 2008Test2 in the Select Computer dialog box and then click ok.

In the details pane you should now have two servers listed.

Creating a Shared Folder and Publishing it to the DFS Namespace 

On 2008Test1 go to Server Manager and expand Roles – File services – Share and Storage Management – and then right click and go to Provision Share.

We now have to specify a location for the shared folder.  Enter C:\Files in the location and click next.

We now need to set the NTFS permissions for the folder.  Click on Yes, change NTFS permissions and then Edit Permissions.  Give Users Modify permissions and then apply.

On the next page you will be asked for a share name for the folder.  Call the folder Files.

On the SMB Settings page leave the defaults and click next.

On the SMB permissions page, select Administrators Have Full Control; all other users and groups have only Read access and Write access.

On the DFS Publsihing Page browse to the location of the DFS Namespace you created earlier and type Files in the Folder name.

On the Summary page review your settings and click create.

You will now have a folder named Files hosted on both 2008Test1 and 2008Test2 and published to a DFS Namespace for redundancy.

About the Author

P1020114

Hi I am Chris Wakefield the owner of ComTech IT Support. I provide Windows and Linux based IT Support, laptop repairs and computer repairs to both business and personal clients throughout Stirling, Falkirk and Clackmannanshire.

For a list of what I can offer you why not visit my website www.comtech247.net where you will find a list of my services, testimonials, blog and much more!!

How to set up an Ldap Server on Ubuntu 12.04 LTS


Today I will show you how to set up an ldap server on Ubuntu 12.04 LTS.

First we need to install the packages we need so in a terminal type:

sudo apt-get install slapd ldap-utils

During installation you will be asked for an ldap administrator password.  You should choose one and then retype it.

The configurations example that follows uses a FQDN of comtech.com. You should change this to the FQDN of your organisation.

Now we need to add some additional schema files. In a terminal enter:

sudo ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /etc/ldap/schema/cosine.ldif
sudo ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /etc/ldap/schema/nis.ldif
sudo ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /etc/ldap/schema/inetorgperson.ldif

Now make a file called backend.comtech.com.ldif somewhere on your system and add the following configuration to it.

# Load dynamic backend modules
dn: cn=module,cn=config
objectClass: olcModuleList
cn: module
olcModulepath: /usr/lib/ldap
olcModuleload: back_hdb.la

# Database settings
dn: olcDatabase=hdb,cn=config
objectClass: olcDatabaseConfig
objectClass: olcHdbConfig
olcDatabase: {1}hdb
olcSuffix: dc=comtech,dc=com
olcDbDirectory: /var/lib/ldap
olcRootDN: cn=admin,dc=comtech,dc=com
olcRootPW: secret
olcDbConfig: set_cachesize 0 2097152 0
olcDbConfig: set_lk_max_objects 1500
olcDbConfig: set_lk_max_locks 1500
olcDbConfig: set_lk_max_lockers 1500
olcDbIndex: objectClass eq
olcLastMod: TRUE
olcDbCheckpoint: 512 30
olcAccess: to attrs=userPassword by dn=”cn=admin,dc=comtech,dc=com” write by anonymous auth by self write by * none
olcAccess: to attrs=shadowLastChange by self write by * read
olcAccess: to dn.base=”” by * read
olcAccess: to * by dn=”cn=admin,dc=comtech,dc=com” write by * read

We now need to add the LDIF to the directory so in a terminal type:

sudo ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f  backend.comtech.com.ldif

Now create a file called frontend.comtech.com.ldif somewhere on your system and add the following configuration to it.

# Create top-level object in domain
dn: dc=comtech,dc=com
objectClass: top
objectClass: dcObject
objectclass: organization
o: Comtech
dc: comtech
description: Comtech LDAP Configuration

# Admin user.
dn: cn=admin,dc=comtech,dc=com
objectClass: simpleSecurityObject
objectClass: organizationalRole
cn: admin
description: LDAP administrator
userPassword: (ADD YOUR OWN PASSWORD HERE)

dn: ou=people,dc=comtech,dc=com
objectClass: organizationalUnit
ou: people

dn: ou=groups,dc=comtech,dc=com
objectClass: organizationalUnit
ou: groups

dn: uid=bob,ou=people,dc=comtech,dc=com
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
objectClass: posixAccount
objectClass: shadowAccount
uid: Bob
sn: Wates
givenName: Bob
cn: Bob Wates
displayName: Bob Wates
uidNumber: 1000
gidNumber: 10000
userPassword: password
gecos: Bob Wates
loginShell: /bin/bash
homeDirectory: /home/bob
shadowExpire: -1
shadowFlag: 0
shadowWarning: 7
shadowMin: 8
shadowMax: 999999
shadowLastChange: 10877
mail: bob.wates@comtech.com
postalCode: CF24
l: Cardiff
o: Comtech
mobile: +44 (0)7 xx xx xx xx
homePhone: +44 (0)1 xx xx xx xx x
title: System Administrator
postalAddress:
initials: BW

dn: cn=comtech,ou=groups,dc=comtech,dc=com
objectClass: posixGroup
cn: comtech
gidNumber: 10000

Now we need to add the entries to the LDAP directory.  In a terminal type:

sudo ldapadd -x -D cn=admin,dc=comtech,dc=com -W -f frontend.comtech.com.ldif

You will be asked for the ldap administration password.  This is the password in the admin section of the frontend.comtech.com.ldif file.

All that is left to do is to test the configuration so in a terminal type:

ldapsearch -xLLL -b “dc=comtech,dc=com” uid=bob sn givenName cn

If your files are configured correctly then you get the following output.

dn: uid=bob,ou=people,dc=comtech,dc=com
cn: Bob Wates
sn: Wates
givenName: Bob

About the Author

P1020114

Hi I’m Chris Wakefield the owner of ComTech IT Support. I provide Windows, Mac and Linux based IT Support to small businesses in Stirling, Alloa and Falkirk.

Follow @Comtech247 on Twitter

How to promote a Windows 2008 R2 Server to a Domain Controller


Today I will show you how to promote a Windows 2008 R2 Server to a Domain Controller.

On your Windows 2008 R2 server go to Start and type dcpromo into the search box as shown below.

When the program has been located double click on it to start the wizard.

On the following page read through the Operating System Compatibility warning and then click next.

The wizard will now ask us to Choose a Deployment Configuration.  If the server is already part of a domain then choose Existing Forest.  For the purpose of this tutorial we shall set up a new domain so choose Create a new domain in a new forest.

On the next page of the wizard you are asked to pick a FQDN for your new domain.  Enter a domain of your choice and then click next.

We are now asked to choose the domain functional level.  If your domain is only going to have Windows Server 2008 R2 machines on it then choose Windows Server 2008 R2.  If however you are intending to run systems with Windows Server 2003 in your domain at some point then you will need to choose Windows Server 2003.  WARNING Once the domain functional level has been set at Windows Server 2008 R2 it can’t be reduced.  This means that if your ever needed to add a Windows Server 2003 server to your domain you couldn’t.

 

Will will now be taken to the Additional Domain Controller Options page.  Make sure that the DNS Server option is ticked and then click next.  When a warning appears asking if you want to continue click yes.

On the next page  you are asked to specify locations for the Database, Log and Sysvol folders.  You can either accept the defaults or create your own locations.  Once configured click next.

You will now be asked for a Directory Services Restore Mode Administrator Password. Enter your chosen password twice and then click next.

 

You will now be shown the Summary page.  Review your choices and when happy click next.  Active Directory Domain Services will now be installed onto your server hence promoting it to a Domain Controller.

About the Author

P1020114

Hi I am Chris Wakefield the owner of ComTech IT Support. I provide Windows and Linux based IT Support, laptop repairs and computer repairs to both business and personal clients throughout Stirling, Falkirk and Clackmannanshire.

For a list of what I can offer you why not visit my website www.comtech247.net where you will find a list of my services, testimonials, blog and much more!!

How to configure file sharing on Ubuntu 12.04 LTS


Today I will show you how to configure file sharing on Ubuntu 12.04 LTS.  This tutorial works for both the desktop and server variations.

First thing is to install the packages we need – Samba and smbfs. So open up a terminal and type:

sudo apt-get install samba

Type your root password when prompted.  Then install smbfs by typing:

sudo apt-get install smbfs

and then type your root password again.

We now have to configure the smb.conf file which contains all the samba settings. In a terminal type:

gksu nano /etc/samba/smb.conf

Locate the line WORKROUP = WORKGROUP and change it to the name of your network.  So for instance mine would be changed to WORKGROUP = Ubuntu_home.

Now at the end of the file add the following text:

[sdc] (This is the name of your share – change as appropriate)
path = /media/dev/sdc (This is the network path to your share – change as appropriate)
available = yes
browsable = yes
public = yes
writable = yes
comment = shared files

Save the file and exit.

If you prefer GUI’s (Desktop Ubuntu only) then you can install the Samba gui instead and share your folders that way.

Now we have to add users to the smbpasswd file which is located at /etc/samba/smbpasswd.  Only users specified in the smbpasswd file will be able to access your samba shares.  Open a terminal and type:

sudo smbpasswd -a user (where user is the name of the person allowed to access the shares)

When prompted enter their new password twice.

We now need to restart the samba service so in a terminal type:

sudo service smbd restart

Now we have to check the configuration so far.  In a terminal type:

testparm

Testparm will tell you if there are any errors in your configuration.  If everything is Ok then type:

smbclient -L 192.168.1.10 (where 192.168.1.10 is the ip address of your samba server).

This will show you the list of all your available samba shares.  At this point if you have no errors your server is configured correctly.

Linux Clients

Install samba and smbfs either using the package manager or the terminal.  We need to edit the Workgroup field in smb.conf to the name of your network (e.g Ubuntu_home).

Then we have to mount the available shares.  First decide where you are going to mount them.  I will mount them in /media/dev/share but first I will have to make the directory dev so:

cd /media

sudo mkdir dev

and then ls which should show us the new dev directory in media.  Now time to mount the shares.

sudo mount -t smbfs //192.168.1.10/(share name) /media/dev/share where 192.168.1.10 is the ip address of your samba server.  This will mount the share but only as long as you are logged in.  To make the link persistent you need to enter the following line into /etc/fstab.

//192.168.1.10/(share)   /media/dev/share      cifs       username=user,password=pass,user,rw,noatime     0              0

Windows Clients

We have to change the workgroup to Ubuntu_home and then add the ip address of the samba server to the hosts file (must open as administrator).

Once this is complete map the shares to your computer.

Word of warning here about firewalls.  Either turn them off or add exception rules for traffic on ports 137-139 and 445.

About the Author

P1020114

Hi I’m Chris Wakefield the owner of ComTech IT Support. I provide Windows, Mac and Linux based IT Support to small businesses in Stirling, Alloa and Falkirk.

Follow @Comtech247 on Twitter

How to set up a dhcp server on Ubuntu Server 12.04 LTS


Today I will show you how to install and configure a dhcp server on Ubuntu Server 12.04 LTS.

The first thing we need to do is install the packages we need.  Open up a terminal and type:

sudo apt-get install isc-dhcp-server

There are two main files /etc/default/isc-dhcp-server and /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf which we will need to configure so lets take the first.  Open up a terminal and using your favourite text editor type:

sudo nano /etc/default/isc-dhcp-server

You should get the following:

———————————————————————————————–

# Defaults for dhcp initscript
# sourced by /etc/init.d/dhcp
# installed at /etc/default/isc-dhcp-server by the maintainer scripts

#
# This is a POSIX shell fragment
#

# On what interfaces should the DHCP server (dhcpd) serve DHCP requests?
# Separate multiple interfaces with spaces, e.g. “eth0 eth1?.
INTERFACES=”eth0″

————————————————————————————————–

Replace eth0 above with the name of your network interface that you want the server to lease addresses on.

Onto the next file. Open up a terminal and type:

sudo nano /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf

which should give you the output below.

————————————————————————————————-

#
# Sample configuration file for ISC dhcpd for Debian
#
# Attention: If /etc/ltsp/dhcpd.conf exists, that will be used as
# configuration file instead of this file.
#
#

# The ddns-updates-style parameter controls whether or not the server will
# attempt to do a DNS update when a lease is confirmed. We default to the
# behavior of the version 2 packages (‘none’, since DHCP v2 didn’t
# have support for DDNS.)
ddns-update-style none;

# option definitions common to all supported networks…
option domain-name “example.org”;
option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;

option domain-name “comtech.com”;
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;

# If this DHCP server is the official DHCP server for the local
# network, the authoritative directive should be uncommented.
#authoritative;

# Use this to send dhcp log messages to a different log file (you also
# have to hack syslog.conf to complete the redirection).
log-facility local7;

# No service will be given on this subnet, but declaring it helps the
# DHCP server to understand the network topology.

#subnet 10.152.187.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
#}

# This is a very basic subnet declaration.

subnet 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
range 10.0.0.150 10.0.0.253;
option routers 10.0.0.2;
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;

option broadcast-address 10.0.0.254;
option domain-name-servers 10.0.0.1, 10.0.0.2;

option ntp-servers 10.0.0.1;
option netbios-name-servers 10.0.0.1;
option netbios-node-type 8;
}

# option routers rtr-239-0-1.example.org, rtr-239-0-2.example.org;

#}

# This declaration allows BOOTP clients to get dynamic addresses,
# which we don’t really recommend.

#subnet 10.254.239.32 netmask 255.255.255.224 {
# range dynamic-bootp 10.254.239.40 10.254.239.60;
# option broadcast-address 10.254.239.31;
# option routers rtr-239-32-1.example.org;
#}

# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
#subnet 10.5.5.0 netmask 255.255.255.224 {
# range 10.5.5.26 10.5.5.30;
# option domain-name-servers ns1.internal.example.org;
# option domain-name “internal.example.org”;
# option routers 10.5.5.1;
# option broadcast-address 10.5.5.31;
# default-lease-time 600;
# max-lease-time 7200;
#}

# Hosts which require special configuration options can be listed in
# host statements. If no address is specified, the address will be
# allocated dynamically (if possible), but the host-specific information
# will still come from the host declaration.

#host passacaglia {
# hardware ethernet 0:0:c0:5d:bd:95;
# filename “vmunix.passacaglia”;
# server-name “toccata.fugue.com”;
#}

# Fixed IP addresses can also be specified for hosts. These addresses
# should not also be listed as being available for dynamic assignment.
# Hosts for which fixed IP addresses have been specified can boot using
# BOOTP or DHCP. Hosts for which no fixed address is specified can only
# be booted with DHCP, unless there is an address range on the subnet
# to which a BOOTP client is connected which has the dynamic-bootp flag
# set.
#host fantasia {
# hardware ethernet 08:00:07:26:c0:a5;
# fixed-address fantasia.fugue.com;
#}

# You can declare a class of clients and then do address allocation
# based on that. The example below shows a case where all clients
# in a certain class get addresses on the 10.17.224/24 subnet, and all
# other clients get addresses on the 10.0.29/24 subnet.

#class “foo” {
# match if substring (option vendor-class-identifier, 0, 4) = “SUNW”;
#}

#shared-network 224-29 {
# subnet 10.17.224.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
# option routers rtr-224.example.org;
# }
# subnet 10.0.29.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
# option routers rtr-29.example.org;
# }
# pool {
# allow members of “foo”;
# range 10.17.224.10 10.17.224.250;
# }
# pool {
# deny members of “foo”;
# range 10.0.29.10 10.0.29.230;
# }
#}

————————————————————————————————

This needs a little bit of explaining.

1. Everything in bold needs adding to the file.  Adjust your settings according to your network requirements.

2. The option domain name is your dns zone name.  For example mine is set to comtech.com.

3. Range should be the range of ip addresses that you want the server to give out to clients.

Now restart the dhcp service by typing:

sudo service isc-dhcp-server restart

Thats it!! Your dhcp server should be running, however it is best to check.  Open up a terminal and type:

sudo netstat -uap

which will show you the following information:

————————————————————————————————

Active Internet connections (servers and established)

Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State PID/Program name

udp 0 0 *:55827 *:* 916/avahi-daemon: r
udp 0 0 chris-desktop.lo:domain *:* 1273/named
udp 0 0 chris-desktop:domain *:* 1273/named
udp 0 0 *:bootps *:* 4525/dhcpd
udp 0 0 *:17500 *:* 1768/dropbox
udp 0 0 *:54407 *:* 4539/VirtualBox
udp 0 0 10.0.0.255:netbios-ns *:* 1016/nmbd
udp 0 0 chris-deskto:netbios-ns *:* 1016/nmbd
udp 0 0 *:netbios-ns *:* 1016/nmbd
udp 0 0 10.0.0.255:netbios-dgm *:* 1016/nmbd
udp 0 0 chris-deskt:netbios-dgm *:* 1016/nmbd
udp 0 0 *:netbios-dgm *:* 1016/nmbd
udp 0 0 *:mdns *:* 916/avahi-daemon: r
udp6 0 0 [::]:domain [::]:* 1273/named
udp6 0 0 [::]:51853 [::]:* 916/avahi-daemon: r
udp6 0 0 [::]:mdns [::]:* 916/avahi-daemon: r

————————————————————————————————

This shows that the dhcp daemon is working

About the Author

P1020114

Hi I’m Chris Wakefield the owner of ComTech IT Support. I provide Windows, Mac and Linux based IT Support to small businesses in Stirling, Alloa and Falkirk.

Follow @Comtech247 on Twitter

 

 

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